Wednesday, 25 June 2014

THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF TOTALITARIANISM

THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF TOTALITARIANISM

In the last twenty years there have been a whole set of developments in the Anglo nations (the U.K., Canada, United States, New Zealand and Australia) which adversely or could adversely affect rights and liberties which have been both long held and proudly proclaimed.  These developments include over-criminalization, growth of regulatory mazes, micro-management of interpersonal relationships, invasive surveillance technology, statutory abridgments of civil legal protections, privatized police forces and prisons, new ways to punish people and zero tolerance policies in schools and elsewhere. They occur at various levels and superficially appear unconnected and uncoordinated.   Perhaps for these reasons we have not really grasped the extent to which our freedoms are being eroded. 

We look for snapshots of this dystopia in the works of George Orwell or Franz Kafka.  And so the terms “Orwellian” and “Kafkaesque” are often applied to what we observe in modern society.  certainly there are comparisons to what people experience in dealing with bureaucratic authority to the experiences of Josef K. in the Trial.   There is a Kafkaesque edge to many of the U.S. prosecutions that are reviewed by Harvey Silverglate in Three Felonies a Day: How the Feds Target the Innocent and by Paul Roberts and Lawrence Stratton in The Tyranny of Good Intentions.

In many ways, however, the new totalitarianism is not like the totalitarianism the world has known in the past. It is not as visibly apparent; it has not arrived in one fell swoop.  Most significantly it is not directly experienced by the average person in his or her daily life.  It is almost a reverse lottery where (at the present time) only a small percentage of people like Abner Schoenwetter (six years in a federal prison for importing Honduran lobsters that were packed in plastic rather than cardboard) end up in a nightmarish entanglement with the legal system.

Many people do not see what is happening because it is a velvet totalitarianism and it has been has making an incremental step by step advance over the last thirty years.  There is no one person, no single political group, no secret society designing the new totalitarianism yet it is ever evolving on a number of different fronts.

I identify four horsemen of totalitarianism.  The first horseman is represented by an enormous expansion of the criminal sphere.  All sorts of acts have been partially or fully criminalized.  There are new environmental crimes, new health and safety crimes and a panoply of new crimes in the sphere of interpersonal relationships.  Behaviours, which were not considered criminal, such as youthful exuberance and poor social conduct, are now brought into the criminal net.

The second horseman is surveillance.  The information gathering abilities of the modern state and large private corporations are immense.  It is now recognized that both governments and corporations gather enormous amounts of information on people through their behind-the-scene access to internet activities. There are also many other surveillance instruments including cameras on every street corner, cameras attached to police vehicles, drones in the sky, virtually unrestricted wire tapping and ubiquitous tracking devices.  The modern state is also putting together a citizen spy system - using nurses and doctors, social workers, teachers, tax collectors, etc. to report on individuals who are allegedly engaging in bullying, tax evasion and other unpopular acts.

The third horseman is the assault on those legal protections that developed over the centuries precisely to protect freedoms and civil rights.  These traditional legal rights have had identifying labels such as habeas corpus, rule against double jeopardy, right to remain silent, privilege against self-incrimination, mens rea, open courts, right to legal representation, the demarcation between the civil and the criminal and proof beyond a reasonable doubt.  Governments have used the cover of fighting terrorists and criminal gangs to severely abridge all of these freedom protecting legal doctrines.

A big part of the undermining of civil rights results from the way the modern state grounds down its victims with publicly financed litigation.  The conduct of the civil forfeiture process in British Columbia is illustrative of the state “winning” through relentless litigation.  The government side is not constricted by costs; on the other hand, the forfeiture target will invariably be forced to pay thousands of dollars in legal fees to defend his or her property.  The result is that the forfeiture target more often than not makes the pragmatic choice and gives up.  The B.C. Civil Forfeiture Office is fully aware of its power in this respect and in fact does not hesitate to bring it repeatedly to the attention of the target.

There has been a relentless growth in a new kind of adjudication system - set deeply in the bureaucracy.  An example is Workers Comp tribunals.  These new tribunals have an irresistible proclivity to go private - to become quasi-secret tribunals.  This is often justified for superficially good reasons - preserving privacy of participants.

The fourth horseman is the punishment regime.  Starting in the 1980's the U.S. went crazy with handing out lengthy terms of imprisonment.  Three strikes and you are out and you get twenty year for stealing a loaf of bread.  People receive prison sentences which will lock them up for half their life because they had a few marijuana plants.  

It is not only a matter of imprisonment.  In the U.S. in particular there are numerous collateral consequences which accompany incarceration - civil penalties, which, unlike fines, prison time, or probation, are not specified in the criminal law and are not imposed during the sentencing of the convicted person.  These collateral punishments are frequently post-incarceration.  Then there is civil forfeiture which does not even require a conviction.  Civil forfeiture of a personal residence or an expensive vehicle is an out of proportion fine which for many people is a life disaster - they would rather have spent a few months in prison.  Then there are the other social control punishments - expulsion from a school or university or the loss of a driver’s license.  The Greater State is even re-legitimizing long-term ostracism.

Velvet totalitarianism seems to come together most completely with children and old people.  Under the rubric of safety concerns children are not allowed to play with any form of a ball on a school ground and there are absurdities such as no touch rules for five year olds.  Kids are expelled from school because they draw a picture of a handgun or have a plastic knife in their backpack.  In the U.K. boisterous teenage behaviour is labelled as anti-social.  At the other end of life old people are institutionalized against their will - ostensibly in order to protect them.

The truly worrisome event will be when the Four Horsemen get together. This will happen when the instruments of surveillance - whether it is spy cameras, citizen spies or internet snooping is used in a coordinated manner to keep tabs on all aspects of an individual activities including his or her  interpersonal relationships.  The charges that emerge out of this giant spy system will be dealt with by bureaucrat cum police, bureaucrat, policeman and judge all rolled up into one, 

Does there come a point when the combined effect of the four horsemen of totalitarianism results in a very different type of society?  A New Society that is arriving by stealth.  

Tuesday, 20 May 2014

THE SCHOOL AS A MINI-POLICE STATE

Forty years ago police were almost unknown in Canadian schools and rare in American schools.  In the early 1990s following several high profile shootings police started to be present on a daily basis in American schools located in the poor areas of major cities.  John Paul Jones in Philadelphia was a typical school located in an inner city slum.  It was nicknamed Jones Jail by its students and was typified by metal detectors, barred windows, windows that open only a crack ostensibly to keep objects or people from being thrown out of them and militaristic security staff that roam the hallways demanding documentation from students not in the classroom.

After Columbine the inner city slum model for a school rapidly spread across the U.S.  In the wake of the 1999 shootings at Columbine, high schools in the United States rushed to adopt strict policies and filled the hallways and entrance ways with armed guards, surveillance cameras, metal detectors and drug-sniffing dogs. These are now almost standard features of the modern American school. Yet for all these extreme measures, public fears over student safety remain high.  

The policing of schools was accelerated further by the Sandy Hook tragedy. The NRA had a solution to Sandy Hook - it certainly wasn’t restricting the civilian ownership of military level weaponry.  It was the arming of the other side - armed police officers, security guards and staff members in every American school, including allowing trained teachers and administrators to carry weapons.

This inspired various arming proposals across the country.   For example, rural Northern Colorado's Thompson School District plan was to put reserve deputies in the halls of six elementary schools.  The principal of one of the schools welcomed the development saying that “it is very difficult to go to bed at night if you don't think you've done absolutely everything you can to keep your kids safe, and when Sandy Hook happened and we realized even elementary schools are vulnerable, it was a very difficult time,"  Marlboro Township, a leafy, well-heeled New Jersey suburb was one of the first jurisdictions in the aftermath of Sandy Hook to station a permanent armed cop in each of its nine schools.  Mayor Jonathan Hornik said “With this new evil, you can’t just sit there and hope that it doesn’t happen in your town. We must protect our kids.”  A small school district in rural Arkansas proposed arming the teachers. Clarksville High School, planned to take this step under a state law that allowed licensed, armed security guards on campus. Teachers in the program would, after undergoing 53 hours of training, function as security guards as well as educators. 

Now America’s schools are being redesigned with a single electronically controlled entrance with cameras, metal detectors and invariably a guard.  Back in Marlboro the council is planning to fortify school entrances with steel doors and bulletproof glass and installing surveillance cameras “all over” to feed to the local police department.

In addition to armed guards at the front door the numbers of police assigned to public schools have soared. An estimated one-third of all sheriffs' offices and almost half of all municipal police departments assign nearly 17,000 sworn officers to serve in America’s schools and nearly half of all public schools have assigned police officers.  In the 2008-2009 school year, there were 5,246 law enforcement officers in New York City’s public schools but only 3,152 guidance counselors.  

The nice name for these policemen in the classrooms of America is school resource officers or SRO’s.  One of the primary consequence of the battalion of SROs in America’s schools has been a surge in criminal charges against children for misbehaviour that used to be handled in the principal's office.  As can be expected the very presence of these police officers in the schools results in greater numbers of students being arrested or charged with crimes for nonviolent, childish behaviour.   

In 2010, the police in Texas gave close to 300,000 "Class C misdemeanour" tickets to children as young as six for offences in and out of school.  Misdemeanours include swearing, misbehaving on the school bus, scuffles, truancy and cursing at teachers.  Children have even been arrested for possessing cigarettes, wearing "inappropriate" clothes and being late for school.  The result is that every day hundreds of schoolchildren, who have received Class C tickets. appear before the courts. These charges result in fines, community service and even prison time.  Texas records show more than 1,000 tickets were issued to primary schoolchildren over the past six years.  It has been described as a school-to-prison pipeline" with a high proportion of children who receive tickets being arrested time and again because they are marked out as troublemakers or find their future blighted by a criminal record.

Most schools do not face any serious threat of violence and police officers patrolling the corridors and canteens are largely confronted with little more than boisterous or disrespectful childhood behaviour.  "What we see often is a real overreaction to behaviour that others would generally think of as just childish misbehaviour rather than law breaking," said one observer. Tickets are most frequently issued by school police for "disruption of class", which can mean causing problems during lessons but is also defined as disruptive behaviour within 500ft (150 metres) of school property such as shouting, which is classified as "making an unreasonable noise".

Accompanying the policed school are zero tolerance programs.  Zero tolerance policies lead to the inevitable idiocies.  Several years ago a first grader student in Delaware was suspended from school after bringing a Cub Scout-issued fork-spoon-knife tool into his classroom.  Under the school's zero-tolerance weapons policy, he was suspended for 45 days and forced to attend an alternative school.  Then there was the honors student who spent a night in jail for skipping class and the 9-year-old boy who was suspended for sexual harassment for remarking that his teacher was cute. The charge against Sarah Bustamantes on the police docket was "disrupting class". The crime; she sprayed two bursts of perfume on her neck in class because other children were bullying her with taunts of "you smell".

When her teacher called the policeman, he did not have to come very far since he patrols the corridors of Sarah's school.  That is the thing about zero-tolerance policies.   They do not apply just to deadly weapons and drugs but to fighting, prescription drugs, Scout’s knifes, perfumes, harmless comments and anything else deemed bad in the closed mentality of certain administrators and teachers.  If a student is caught violating these broad rules, there is no discussion and no elaboration  and no investigation. There is just a one-size-fits-all punishment.

The reality is that America’s schools taken as a whole are really not any more violent or dangerous than they were forty years ago.  More than 98% of youth homicides do not occur in schools; in the 2009-2010 school year there was approximately one homicide or suicide of school-age youth at school per 2.7 million students.

America’s school children, however, are being taught a lesson about civil society; namely, that they must accept authority without question and that they have absolutely no rights to question punishment. If a kid wants to participate in an organization they learn that he or she should expect to be drug tested.  Furthermore guards and metal detectors at the “reinforced” entrances, police officers in the hallways every day and omnipresent security cameras including in washrooms are all part of normal life.  Don’t challenge these security features if you want to avoid a police record that will affect you the rest of your life.  In fact don’t do anything including saying anything which someone in authority might consider out of line.

John Whitehead of the Rutherford Institute asks “How do you persuade a nation of relatively freedom-loving individuals to march in lock step with a police state? You start by convincing them that they're in danger, and only the government can protect them. Keep them keyed up with constant danger alerts, and the occasional terrorist incident, whether real or staged. Distract them with wall-to-wall news coverage about sinking ships, disappearing planes and pseudo-celebrities spouting racist diatribes. Use blockbuster movies, reality shows and violent video games to hype them up on military tactics, and then while they're distracted and numb to all that is taking place around them, indoctrinate their young people to your way of thinking, relying primarily on the public schools and popular culture.”

If the schools are going to be mini police states how long is it before the rest of society is going to be restructured along the same lines.  Perhaps not very long.  Government offices are now heavily “fortified” with guards at the entrances, employees (all with identification badges) working in locked rooms and the (greatly feared) public largely excluded.  And like heavily  policed schools nobody really even questions this super-security environment any more.



Wednesday, 26 March 2014

NO TOUCHING POLICIES AND VELVET AUTHORITARIANISM


No tolerance to touching appears to be the latest disciplinary fad infecting school administrators across North America.  

A Milford, Connecticut middle school banned all physical contact between students, including high-fives, handshakes, and hand-holding, in an alleged attempt to cut down on "horseplay”.  This absurdity was implemented after a student was injured in a "groin-kicking" incident but rather than just dealing with the specific incident, brain dead school officials decided that they had to ban ANY and ALL contact between students.  

A middle school in Canada was in the news recently for their "no loving, no shoving" policy, which is intended to prevent violence and sexual contact.  Consequently four middle school students were called down to the principal’s office for the crime of hugging.  The girls, who frquently got in trouble for the dastardly crime of hugging each other pushed back by organizing a “hug-in” protest at the school.

Schools in Arizona, New Jersey and elsewhere have attempted to implement similar no-touch initiatives.  It was noted that the old adage "keep your hands to yourself" - once reserved for school assemblies and cafeterias - has slowly crept its way into hallways, classrooms and playgrounds policies.

At Mornington Peninsula primary school in Australia one parent said her son was winded on the playground yesterday and, when his friend tried to console him by putting his arm around his shoulder, the friend was told his actions were against the rules.  The friend then had to walk around with the teacher on playground duty for the rest of lunch as punishment.   Another parent said his children were told they could not high-five each other.  "I have a couple of children, and they have been told that if they high-five one another that’s instant detention, and if they do it three times they will be expelled," John said.  "I mean, what are they actually trying to teach?"  One child was reportedly told that if students wanted to high-five, it would have to be an "air high-five".

The no touch policy reached its pathological extreme when school administrators at Coghlan Fundamental Elementary School in Aldergrove, British Columbia banned kindergarten students from touching each other during recess.  Students were sent home with a letter on November 1, 2013 advising parents of the new hands-off rule which prohibits games such as tag, holding hands and imaginary Star Wars light saber duels.  Yes even imaginary fighting games (not involving any physical contact) were now punishable by trips to the office and the missing of playtime.

Parent Julia Chen said "I can’t imagine little kids not being able to hug each other or help each other on the playground.  Not tag, no hugging, no touching at all."  The school said it would have a zero-tolerance policy when it came to the no-touching policy and children who break the rule will miss playtime or be sent to the office.

These bizarre rules are often justified as a safety measure.  Principal Judy Beckworth of the Australian school said it was "not actually a policy, it’s a practice that we’ve adopted in the short-term as a no-contact games week".  She said the new practice was introduced yesterday after students suffered a number of injuries on the playground in recent weeks, and the new no-touching rule was only due to last for one week.

"Now it's almost as if it's a sanitized school," said one parent about no touch rules. "Where you have to keep your distance from everybody? And that's not what school is about." It's not what life is about, either. The more we "protect" children with asinine rules like this, the more confused we make them about their own right to space, privacy, and their bodies.  Forcing them to keep their hands to themselves only serves as a means to help the administration keep their heads in the sand.”

Traumatizing five year old over touching each other?  What a gold plated way to cause long term psychological damage to little kids and to think we actually pay one hundred thousand dollar plus salaries to school principals to come up with these kinds of absurdities.

There is a recognized psychological disease known as haphephobia. The (4th Ed.) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association describes haphephobia, or the fear of touch, as “a rare but often devastating phobia. Most people with haphephobia fear being touched by anyone, although some people are afraid only of being touched by those of the opposite gender. Haphephobia is sometimes triggered by sexual assault or another trauma, but more often, it seems to develop without any known cause.   Most people who cannot trace their haphephobia to a specific event develop the fear in early childhood, although it can occur at any time. The fear is highly unusual in that it is not particularly linked to other fears such as social phobia or fears of vulnerability or intimacy. Many people with haphephobia are able to form warm, tight bonds with other people, although they may worry that those bonds are at risk due to their inability to show physical affection.”

It goes on to say “The need for touch and human contact is innate, and the inability to enjoy that contact can cause feelings of isolation and loneliness. Haphephobia is extremely difficult for most people to understand, and the rejection of touch may be interpreted as a rejection of the person offering the touch.”

Lawrence Cohen and Anthony DeBenedet in “The Problem with 'No Hug' Policies in School” note that Anthony Pellegrini, a professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota who studies recess and rough-and-tumble play, has found that children can tell play fighting from real fighting much better than adults. They comments “Yet adults continue to believe that they are protecting children when they ban roughhousing. No-touch policies in elementary schools are motivated more by safety than worries about sexual contact, but in reality, safety is sometimes a code word to disguise schools’ burning desire for order.”

There is another aspect about no touch rules.  It puts holding hands  on par with a full scale physical assault? Perhaps school administrators in Canada, the U.S. and Australia are inspired by the U.K. which has become the World’s model for a new type of totalitarian state where “crimes” ranging from putting a poster on a telephone pole to robbing a bank are all lumped together under the rubric “anti-social behavior”.  It is part of the very disturbing trend to criminalize a whole range of normal, innocent behavior.

Orwell’s vision of a totalitarian society was based on what he saw happening in Germany and the Soviet Union during the 1930's but the totalitarian society that is evolving in the former heartlands of democracy and personal freedom is very much different.  It is characterized by the mentality of a no tolerance policy about five year olds touching each other.  It may be motivated by the best of intentions and it may not seem on par with the physical cruelty that children experienced in the orphanages and residential schools of past years. But it is alarming when school authorities think it is appropriate to put young children into this kind of physical and mental straight jacket.  In some respects it is a measure of control that would not even have been seen in the dystopian society contemplated by Orwell.

Constraining the freedom of individuals - start with constraining the freedom of children.  Children are a prime object of the social policers whether they are drafting draconic anti-bullying policies,  banning books, legislating ASBOS and IPNAS or enforcing student codes of conduct. Starting in the kindergartens teach them to accept a controlled social environment!

What if parents resist no touching and other anti-children rules?  There is a suggestion from Scotland that the state has a new remedy up its sleeve.  It is the Children and Young People Act which was passed by the Scottish parliament on .  Now every child in Scotland, from birth until the age of 18, will have a specific state-appointed ‘guardian’ to safeguard their interests and oversee their safety. Until school age this person might be a health visitor or midwife; upon attaining school age the role will be assumed by a school teacher. This person will have a “duty” and responsibility to act as the child’s guardian and to have legal authority to access information from the police, the local council, the National Health Service and other government agencies.



Monday, 17 March 2014

DON"T HURT MY FEELINGS. HOW THE EMERGING DOCTRINE OF INOFFENSIVENESS ENDS FREE SPEECH.

When you protect people from having their feelings hurt, you must necessarily end freedom of speech. Anything and everything can be punished.

North American universities have become famous for their all-inclusive speech codes.  Drexel University's harassment policy banned "inconsiderate jokes" and "inappropriately directed laughter."   Johns Hopkins University prohibits any “rude, disrespectful behavior”.  At Colorado State you are not allowed to tell a joke that makes fun of someone for some reason such as an inability to spell.  University of Connecticut also outlawed “inappropriately directed laughter” and adds a ban on “conspicuous exclusion of students from conversation”. At Tufts University a student newspaper was found guilty of harassment in 2007 for printing violent passages from the Quran and facts about the status of women in Saudi Arabia.   Northeastern University did all the other speech codes one better by prohibiting sending any e-mail message “which in the sole judgment of the University is offensive”.

In other words the “right not to be offended” has increasingly made vigorous debate practically impossible. It is no longer permitted to say anything meaningful since someone or some group may take offence or claim victim status.  If someone’s feelings can be hurt by something that is said, a campus equity office comes to the fore, armed with the right to force sensitivity training on the speaker backed up by the right to suspend or expel anyone who resists being sent to reeducation camp.

The mentality of the university is spreading into the public realm.  Take Nova Scotia’s Cyber-safety Act.  It defines cyberbullying as any electronic communication through the use of technology including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, computers, other electronic devices, social net-works, text messaging, instant messaging, websites and electronic mail, typically repeated or with continuing effect, that is intended or ought reasonably [to] be expected to cause fear, intimidation, humiliation, distress or other damage or harm to another person’s health, emotional well-being, self-esteem or reputation, and includes assisting or encouraging such communication in any way“.

Cyberbullying at its broadest reach thusly “means any electronic communication ... that ... ought reasonably [to] be expected to cause ..... distress or other damage or harm to another person’s .... emotional well-being, self-esteem or reputation.”  It could cover a phone call - even a phone call initiated by a so-called victim.  For example you receive an unsolicited phone call from a Christian evangelist.  You react by harshly criticizing religion and denying the existence of God.  You say that Jesus Christ never existed or if he did he was a quack.  You state that Christianity is a force of evil.  Or you say all these types of things in an unsolicited call from a Muslim.  You ought reasonably have expected that the expression of your opinion will cause distress to the phone caller’s emotional well-being.  

Similarly virtually any vigorous criticism of a politician or other public figure that is made in an electronic communication could reasonably be expected to cause damage or harm to that person’s well-being, self-esteem or reputation.  The application for the protection order concerning such can even be submitted “by telephone or other means of telecommunication, by a lawyer, a police officer or a person designated by the regulations for this purpose, with the applicant’s consent”.

Self designated moral guardians are already zealously policing public space and debate forcing targets to back down or apologize for offending communications.  Often it is a handful of individuals who initiate the policing.  For example in 2004, the UK Office of Communications (Ofcom) upheld the complaints of three people who had taken offence to Somerfield supermarket’s advert for a meat dish which included the use of the word ‘faggot’, on the grounds that the word is also derogatory slang for a homosexual.  The English online publication “Spiked” recently reported on a similar row over a West Midlands pub selling something called ‘The Michael Barrymore Pie: Faggots Swimming in Gravy”. 

It is a new form of minority censorship where each citizen is deputized as a gatekeeper of inoffensiveness. Every individual is turned into a potential citizen spy.  The online English publication, Spike reported about a couple of police officers who complained about an advertisement for a Wearside law firm. “The promotional poster advertised the fact that everyone who is taken to a police station is entitled to free legal advice. It was placed opposite the main police station in Sunderland and showed an attractive woman dressed as a sexy policewoman waving handcuffs under the words: ‘It’s a fair cop! (but it might not be)….so let [our solicitors] advise, assist and defend you.’ Following the police officers’ complaints the advertisement was promptly quashed.

In a culture of inoffensiveness, the idea that ‘You can’t say something that might hurt someone’s feelings, results in a censorship by a small number of people claiming to have felt offended.  As stated by Alex Hochuli in Spiked “Once society accepts that it is legitimate to protect individuals or groups from the subjective category of ‘offensive’ speech or expression, then that gives carte blanche to individuals everywhere to demand the removal of things they don’t like.”  Hochuli correctly notes “The consequence is an unmistakable narrowing of what is acceptable and unacceptable speech, and the spread of both formal and informal speech codes.”  People will avoid saying anything that could possibly be taken as offensive by anybody.  They will self censor their humour, their controversial statements, their hearty opinions.  Free speech is at an end.

Monday, 3 February 2014

THE WAR ON YOUTH

Labour in the United Kingdom brought in the widely reviled ASBO (Anti-Social Behaviour Order) and the Conservative-Liberal coalition are trying to do them one better with IPNA which stands for Injunction to Prevent Nuisance and Annoyance.  A review of comments from local UK police forces quickly reveal that the number one target of ASBOS and IPNAS are youth. As Guardian writer Janet Street-Porter wrote “Have you noticed how the hackneyed phrase "antisocial behaviour" is generally in the same sentence as teenager?

What is driving this Anti Youth mentality?  According to psychologist and TV presenter Tanya Byron adults in the U.K.are suffering from ephebiphobia - fear of young people.  There have been a number of studies which support this.

One study compared the views of 185 teenagers (aged 11-15) at a Greater London comprehensive school in 2006 with those of over 200 adult residents in the same area, in order to establish whether there are significant age-related differences. The questionnaire listed 18 different behaviours (from ‘assaulting a police officer’ to ‘young people hanging around in streets/parks’) and set out a series of vignettes to capture the views of the two groups.

The study revealed  a wide variety of behaviours that adults identified as anti-social including acts ranging serious crimes to everyday activities such as gathering in groups and playing football in the street.  Indeed 40% of adults saw young people’s presence in public places, regardless of their behaviour, as anti-social behavior.  Similarly more than 60% of adults listed cycling or skateboarding on the street as ASB.

The leader of the study, Hulley, noted that the “identification of behaviour as anti-social involved an interpretative process that is not based simply on the behaviour itself but on the age of those involved.”  He further stated “My research confirms that young people are particularly likely to be labelled perpetrators of ASB - especially by adult observers - and are less likely to be recognised as victims of ASB.”

A 200-page report done for The Institute for Public Policy Research in 2006 found that more than 1.5 million Britons thought about moving away from their local area due to young people hanging around.  About 1.7 million admitted to avoiding going out after dark as a direct result of youths gathering.  Britons were also three times more likely to cite young people "hanging around" as a problem than they were to complain about noisy neighbours.

A recent Best Value User satisfaction survey (Department for Communities and Local Government, 2007) found that 57 per cent of respondents reported young people hanging around on the streets as a big or fairly big problem(this percentage was higher compared to otherantisocial behaviours, such as vandalism and littering).  The “children’s tsar”, Sir Aynsley-Green said in a recent speech the “demonisation and lack of empathy for young people is a major issue for England. It causes anger and alienation”. In fact normal youth behaviour, such as gathering in public places and playing ball games, was being demonised, that is, the attitudes about so-called juvenile criminals had become one of the most severe for generations.

Tuesday, 17 December 2013

TOTALITARIANISM ADVANCES IN THE UK

The U.K exemplifies the new kind of totalitarianism taking hold in the West.  New Labour brought in the widely reviled ASBO (Anti-Social Behaviour Order) but the Conservative-Liberal coalition have done them one better with IPNA.  IPNA stands for Injunction to Prevent Nuisance and Annoyance.  Believe it or not, in the U.K, it is possible to obtain an injunction against nuisance and annoyance.

AN IPNA is worse than the ASBO in four different ways: a broader definition; a lower standard of proof; increased sanctions; and increased durations.

Anti-Social Behavior under the new Act is defined as “an engagement or the threat of engaging in "conduct capable of causing nuisance or annoyance to any person" This compares to “behaviour that caused or was likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household as the offender" for a Criminal Behaviour Order.   Underline that it is not just behavior that causes a nuisance or annoyance but also behavior merely capable of causing a nuisance or annoyance.

Is it humanly possible to avoid being the subject of an IPNA? Is there a person alive who has not caused annoyance to another person?  What about the hyper-sensitive individuals who believe that they are being bombarded by various types of “rays”, who demand absolute silence from those around them; who will not broker any disagreement or the slightest disparagement from others?  It has been pointed out that trick-or-treaters on Hallowe’en could certainly be subject to an IPNA and that “even carol singers could be deemed “capable” of causing a nuisance or annoyance to some people.  Many curmudgeonly adults find children very annoying and appropriately IPNA’s can be issued against a kid over the age of ten.  It is obvious that IPNAs will invariably be directed at everyday activities of children such as skateboarding or ball games or street soccer.

Before a court can grant an ASBO it has to be satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that a person has behaved antisocially and that it is necessary to protect others from further antisocial acts. Under the new legislation the court will have to believe only that "on the balance of probabilities" a person has behaved antisocially and to conclude that it is "just and convenient" to grant an injunction to stop their antisocial behaviour.  The IPNA grants judicial discretion to either prohibit a person from "doing anything" contained in the injunction, or to require a person to "do anything" contained in the injunction.  Thusly, if the police or local council decide "on the balance of probabilities" that a weekly pickup soccer game at a community field is capable of annoying residents, they could stop it by asking the Court to issue an injunction against the players.  The Court would be almost unlimited in setting the terms of the order including forbidding any of the players to ever be present on that field or even to appear in public with a soccer ball.  If subsequently a player over 14and disobeys the minutae of the injunction, he or she could be imprisoned for up to three months.

The police will also have the power to make a dispersal order where there is a presence or behaviour in a locality that has contributed to or is likely to contribute to harassment, alarm or distress or the occurrence of crime or disorder.  These orders can be made merely if there is reasonable grounds for suspicion. 

The IPNA can result in even harsher punishment than an ASBO including up to 2 years imprisonment or an unlimited fine in a contempt of court proceeding. 

While there are some limits on the duration of  an ASBO, the duration of IPNA will be unlimited. Thus a 16 year old could be ordered not to be on a certain street in a town and ten years later the prohibition would still be in place.

It was noted that “Each time successive Governments have amended the ASB regime, the definition of anti-social behaviour has grown wider, the standard of proof has fallen lower and the punishment for breach has toughened. This arms race must end.” 

Monday, 23 September 2013

WHEN JOKING BECOMES A CRIME

Joking around has been outlawed in a number of situations.  Firstly, you do not make jokes about blowing things up as Paul Chambers found out in the UK’s famous Twitter Trial.  When Mr. Chambers was unable to catch an important flight he made the big mistake of twitting “Crap! Robin Hood airport is closed. You've got a week and a bit to get your shit together, otherwise I'm blowing the airport sky high!”  This joking threat was made to a small group of friends that followed him on twitter but somehow or other the tweet came into the purview of the authorities.  Consequently Mr. Chambers was prosecuted and convicted pursuant to the Communication Act for "sending a public electronic message that was grossly offensive or of an indecent, obscene or menacing character".  He lost his job and his life was horribly upset even though the conviction was ultimately set aside on appeal.  The absurdity of the whole situation was that it was obviously a joke and that he never planned to blow up the airport, and nobody in authority thought that he planned to blow up the airport.  A joke of this type, however,  is not allowed anymore.

Two British tourists learnt the same lesson when they were barred from entering America after joking on Twitter that they were going to 'destroy America' and 'dig up Marilyn Monroe'. The Department of Homeland Security identified the young man as a potential threat when he posted an excited tweet to his pals about his forthcoming trip to Hollywood which read: 'Free this week, for quick gossip/prep before I go and destroy America?'  He told officials that the term 'destroy' was British slang for 'party', but nevertheless he and his girlfriend were held on suspicion of planning to 'commit crimes' and had their passports confiscated.  In fact, he was handcuffed and kept under armed guard in a cell with Mexican drug dealers for 12 hours after landing in Los Angeles.

The UK’s Equality Act of 2010 put jokes about religion into the no-no category.  A UK lawyer was asked whether a Catholic member of staff would be successful with a complaint he filed about a colleague telling offensive jokes in the office – a few of which referred to the Pope.  The lawyerly answer “While a jovial atmosphere in the workplace helps to create a fun and positive environment, it is important for colleagues taking part to understand that some jokes might be construed as harassment in the eyes of the law.  In the present example, offensive jokes about the Pope could easily amount to harassment under the Equality Act 2010, so you are right to be concerned.”

In France a woman and her brother were convicted for “justifying a crime” after her toddler son, named Jihad, went to preschool in a T-shirt bearing the words “I am a bomb” and “Jihad: Born on Sept. 11.  Bouchra Bagour received a 2,000-euro fine and a one-month suspended prison sentence and her brother, Zayed, received a 4,000-euro fine and two-month suspended sentence. The boy, whose real name is Jihad and whose birthday is Sept. 11, wore the shirt to preschool last year. The family are not Islamic militants - it apparently was intended as a joke.  Bad taste as a joke and in France also very illegal. 

In this age of extreme social correctness interpersonal relationships are fraught with peril.  This starts with anything that can be remotely labeled as sexual.  We can see the broad parameters of this in some excerpts from “Shockwaves: The Global Impact of Sexual Harassment by Susan L. Webb.  Firstly we start with the heading “Sexual Harassment is Conduct of a Sexual Nature that Occurs Because of the Person's Sex”.  She goes on to say “Conduct of a sexual nature includes a range of behaviors or actions, since there is a very wide range of activities which are expressions of sexuality or have sexual connotations in our society.  Therefore, behavior which may appear relatively innocent (such as joking, innuendoes, flirting and asking someone on a date) to behavior which is blatantly illegal (such as forced fondling, attempted or actual rape and sexual assault) can all constitute conduct of a sexual nature.”  

As suggested by the headline in Shockwaves “conduct of a sexual nature” equals sexual harassment.  This was illustrated by Julia Gray, founder of the London branch of US movement Hollaback, which is dedicated to getting rid of street harassment.  She said: "The way we see it is if you want to tackle it you tackle all of it – you say no to all forms of unwanted sexual harassment; that includes wolf-whistling, comments, everything."  Not surprising that a Toronto fireman got fired for this joking tweet "Reject a woman and she will never let it go. One of the many defects of their kind. Also weak arms."

In most cases it is largely the so-called victim who determines whether the conduct is sexual harassment. Per the above “Whether a particular behavior is defined as sexual harassment depends largely on whether the behavior is unwelcome to the target, along with the circumstances surrounding those evens.  Unwelcome behaviors, which are considered sexual harassment, can be of verbal, non-verbal, physical, or visual nature.” This means that a joke told to a room full of a hundred people can constitute sexual harassment to the one person who finds it offensive.

John Yardley, a Conservative councillor in Wolverhampton in the U.K. where he is the Cabinet Member for Neighbourhoods and Safer Communities found out that you no longer about sexual orientation. He was interviewed by police after supposedly making a transexual joke at a meeting. He was chairing a presentation when the police authority worker making the presentation said: ‘Let’s start with an easy question to get us going. Press Button A if you’re male or B if you’re female.’ A member of the audience asked: ‘What if you are transgender?  By answering this question the wrong way John Yardley committed his alleged ‘hate crime’  He responded jokingly: ”You could press A and B together”.   His answer supposedly “hurt” the person who asked the question and who was in fact transgendered.  In this bizarre age full of people quick to claim injury a quick witted, funny answer like that is no longer permitted.  

Totalitarian societies are typically homourless since humour has an invariable in your face, rebellious element.  Humor shows up human foibles.   It has to somewhat outrageous in order to be effective. The “joke police” are out there, however, ready with their dripping sanctimony to apply some pejorative label to humour poking fun at human characteristics.  It has been said very aptly “Without humour, civility cannot flourish. The tendency to label every joke or passing comment we consider to be in poor taste as something more, something sexist, misogynist, or racist is a sign of a New Puritanism taking hold.”  The New Puritanism is a driving force in our developing bureaucratic police state.

Monday, 5 August 2013

POLICING ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN THE UK

Anti-social behavior? England in the 2010's seems ... well ... so 1970's Soviet Union.  Here is Article 65 from 1977 Soviet Union Constitution: A citizen of the USSR is obliged to respect the rights and lawful interests of other persons, to be uncompromising toward anti-social behavior, and to help maintain public order.  In the East German crackdown on dissenters in 1988 charges ranged from rowdyism and anti-social behavior to treason and working with agents of capitalism (for which sentences of 12 years were proposed).

Anti-Social behavior was a widely identified “evil” in the Soviet Union, East Germany and other Eastern Bloc countries.  It did not mean just political dissent; it was most often a diatribe for rebellious youth, long haired hippies, cultural outliers, etc.

What happened when the Evil Empire fall apart.  After It died in the East it was reincarnated in the following decade in the U.K.  Something similar to Article 65 would probably be included in a new UK constitution; since the UK does not have a constitution per se, equivalent provisions appear in a variety of different acts.

A review of local English newspapers shows that the scourge of the land is anti-social behavior.  In the July 16, 2013 edition of the Skegness Review it was reported that the Neighbourhood Policing Team had appealed for information after two ‘pre-teen’ children threw stones and ‘other objects’ at properties in the town on Sunday.  PCSO Dave Bunker “The males are known to have been on Church Road North, Skegness as well as the locations where they were reportedly acting anti socially,” 

The Gloucestershire Gazette on June 3 informed its readers that drink-related crime and anti-social behaviour in Dursley was being targeted by police during the summer as children finish school for the year. Inspector Andy Poole said: "It is essential that those engaged in anti-social activities are challenged regarding their behaviour.”   

Bradford Telegraph on the same day reported that police were putting extra officers on patrol in the City Park during school holidays after an increase in anti-social behaviour and that the City Ward Neighbourhood Policing Team drafted in more police community support officers to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour in the city centre and the inner city communities of Little Horton.  What is anti-social behavior in Bradford.  The paper said “The problems have consisted of the anti-social use of skateboards, alcohol misuse and large groups of youths congregating, which can be intimidating to other members of the public.”

On July 8, 2013 the Wirral Globe announced that police across Merseyside had launched a six-week crackdown on the anti-social use of scrambler bikes.  Operation Brookdale will centre on areas where communities have suffered from the illegal and anti-social use of scrambler and quad bikes. It was said that riders of these bikes have “a complete disregard for decent, law-abiding members in their communities.”

Cambridge News on July 2 told about worried residents despatching police to tackle anti-social behaviour in a Cambridgeshire village – but all officers found was a smiley face daubed on a bus stop.  The police account said: “We received a report of graffiti on the bus stop in High Street, Linton. PCSO Pulley went to examine this and found a smiley face painted on. There was no other damage. PCSO Pulley has been liaising with the parish council regarding this.”  In a less repressive England this would have been a Monty Python skit. 

Stratford-upon-Avon Herald on  June 13, 2013 noted that according to a recent vote that Stratford people want the police to focus more on anti-social behaviour than road safety. Police asked residents to vote both online and at the town’s community forum the previous week for what they wanted officers to focus on for the ensuing three months. “Now the votes have been counted, the top two policing priorities are to reduce anti-social behaviour in the town centre and on the Bancroft Gardens and to reduce anti-social behaviour outside the town centre, on Shottery Fields and on the housing estates.”   The Stratford police had been given new powers to ban “intimidating” groups of people from the town centre for 24 hours which the paper thought seemed to tie in with the concerns of residents. 

Horncastle News on June 8 appeared happy to advise that police in Horncastle had taken swift and decisive action to deal with an increase in reports of anti social behaviour involving vehicles. Inspector Terry Ball, head of policing in the Wolds Area, revealed residents had complained about noise and anti-social behaviour in St Lawrence Street and Tesco car park.  Inspector Ball went on to reveal high level patrols were continuing to help combat anti social behaviour in Coningsby and Tattershalll.  Again it appeared that it was young people who were targeted as Ball confirmed ten warning letters had been issued to youths who had been involved in incidents in the vicinity of Coningsby launderette.

Watford Observer on July 29, 2013 advised that two employees from a grounds maintenance company would be able to request the name and address of anyone they suspect of causing anti-social behaviour and confiscate alcohol from those underage after being given policing powers by Hertfordshire Constabulary.  The John O’Conner Grounds Maintenance employees were given the limited powers under the Community Safety Accreditation Scheme on Tuesday, July 23.  Hertfordshire Constabulary's community safety manager, Sally Russell, added: "We are pleased to welcome these two council contractors into the Community Safety Accreditation Scheme and to facilitate them being able to deal more effectively with anyone causing anti-social behaviour.  The Scheme continues to grow successfully and to play an important role in the delivery of effective policing in many neighbourhoods. Above all, it assists in providing an effective and efficient contribution to the safety and security of Hertfordshire’s residents."

There will be no street parties in Sheffield as the Star reports on July 30 that a dispersal order has been granted for the Fir Vale and Firth Park areas of Sheffield, giving police officers extra powers to split up groups on street corners in a crackdown on anti-social behaviour.  The dispersal order was made because residents complained to South Yorkshire Police and Sheffield Council about the behaviour of groups congregating on the streets.  The order gives police and police community support officers the right to split up groups of two or more people to reduce the risk of trouble.  Apparently it did not concern the good citizens or the authorities whether the groups were doing anything criminal or were just hanging around.

The law says that someone is behaving in an antisocial manner if they are acting in a manner that is causing, or is likely to cause, alarm or distress, or they are doing several things over a period of time that cause, or are likely to cause, alarm or distress to at least one person living in another household.  This definition also covers verbal abuse, so if someone has been shouting and swearing at another person or even saying things which make others feel uneasy, then it could be classed as antisocial behaviour under the law.

The South Kesteven District Council has its own definition of Anti Social Behaviour.  It is behaviour by an individual or group that results in another party feeling personally threatened or which creates a public nuisance, or which has a detrimental impact upon the environment and thereby has a detrimental effect upon the quality of life of an individual or the community as a whole.  They also have a definition for a “Vulnerable Victim of Anti Social Behaviour”.  A Vulnerable Victim a vulnerable person is one whose experience and/or effect of harm as a result of the incident is likely to be more significant because of their individual personal circumstances.  This is about a subjective a test as you will find anywhere.  Feel sorry for the hapless soul whose path crosses the extremely sensitive person who can be upset about pretty much anything - a look on someone’s face, an “excuse me” said in the wrong way, a piece of clothing that symbolizes something that the victim doesn’t like. 

It is interesting that most of the above mentioned stories about policing anti-social behavior were in newspapers serving small towns or suburbs, rather than big cities.  The targets of anti-social policing are not just tough inner city gangs.

What else can we conclude about the policing of so-called anti-social behavior in the UK.  The anti-social behavior which is the subject of dispersal orders often seems very vague.  It is not limited to public drunkenness but extends to any behavior that could be considered impolite by “decent, law-abiding citizens”. Are there really that many obnoxious people on the High Streets of small town England.  Or is the term obnoxious people almost synonomous with youth.  The U.K’s decent, law-abiding citizens just don’t like young people just “hanging around” or having a good time.  

This kind of obsession with “ant-social behavior” is not present in the United States or Canada.  Youth are not targeted just because they hang around.

New Labour introduced the anti-social behavior law and its ASBO’s to the U.K.  The Conservatives promised to change things but their new Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Bill creates a set of tougher, and even easier to obtain, measures to tackle so-called anti-social behaviour. 

The Children's Society in the U.K. notes that the government has in fact worsened anti-social behaviour measures for children.  They declare “We fear that the measures could seriously affect the way children go about living their everyday lives.”

The bill will replace the ASBO with a new injunction to known as an IPNA (Injunction to Prevent Nuisance and Annoyance). This injunction greatly increases the scope of the types of behaviour that are subject to anti-social behaviour measures and can be used for children as young as 10 if they behave in a way that is capable of causing "nuisance and annoyance". This is instead of causing "harassment, alarm and distress", as defined by ASBOs.  It is obvious that causing “nuisance and annoyance” can cover a huge range of normal childhood behaviour and will result in many more children being drawn into the criminal justice system.

The excerpts from English newspaper articles about policing anti-social behavior illustrate that it is really about policing young people.  It was noted by the Children’s Society in response to the IPNAs that the very low threshold for policing measures will extend over a huge range of typical childhood behavior.  Now “those annoying teenagers hanging around malls or on the street can now be dealt with by authorities.  “The breach of an injunction can result in a joyless jail term for those 14 and over in other words, the teenager can be put in prison for not actually having committed a criminal offense, but just having annoyed somebody.” The conviction for an antisocial behavioral offence can also lead to the criminal behavior order and up to two years of imprisonment.

Even children younger than ten can be targeted for anti-social behavior.  The Daily Mail reported that a police community support officer wrote several letters to the parents of Ellie-Louise Cox, aged four, and her sister Isabel, seven, complaining about their children’s (and that of neighbor three year old, Caidence Leadbetter’s) anti-social behaviour’ near homes in Smiths Wood, Solihill. The letters said elderly neighbours had complained of 'minor damage' to trees, the 'trampling of plants' and 'slightly intimidating behaviour'.  The letters from the  PCSO from the Solihull Police observed: “Reports have been received about a rise in anti-social behaviour”.  The police regretfully stated “There was no mention of Asbos in the letter and, legally, we cannot issue the orders to anyone under 10-years-old”.

It would be nice to say that these draconic youth targeting laws are simply the work of evil UK politicians and do not have general public support but that is not the case because “teenagers hanging around” has been the item which provoked the most continuous concern in the population in the British Crime Survey from 2004 to 2009.  Preteens and teens can be very annoying and often are a nuisance.  So what do you do about it?  You pass a law to lock them up.  The U.K. Gulag for children.

Tuesday, 9 July 2013

WHEN GOOD INTENTIONS GO BAD

The last 20 years has seen a plethora of authoritarian legislation in the United States, Canada and England. This legislation has often been accompanied by the best of intentions.  As Paul Craig Roberts says in the Tyranny of Good Intentions “The twentieth century’s belief in government power as a force for good has encouraged the practice of chasing after devils.  Like a national emergency, a righteous cause can cut a wide swath through the law to more easily apprehend wrongdoers.”  The legislators more often than not have been spurred by reform oriented media campaigns. The end result, however, has been an accumulative attack on basic civil rights that extend back to the Magna Carta.

The new anti-bullying legislation in Nova Scotia is typical of the type of bad laws that are resulting from good intentions.  The anti-bullying law, as is often the case, was prompted by the suicide of a teenager allegedly caused by so-called bullying which took place primarily on the Internet.  There are undoubtedly many nuances to teenage suicide but they are swept aside when there is a convenient explanation available.  The end result is an intense media campaign which politicians ignore at their peril.

In the Nova Scotia case the provincial Attorney General at first instance said that he had been advised by Crown prosecutors that there was no basis for proceeding with criminal charges.  This was not the right thing to say to the media and to the new type of mob rule on the Internet characterized by the hacker group Anonymous.  Very quickly a scared government reversed its original position and rushed to introduce new legislation.

The provincial government in Nova Scotia is NDP which is a left of centre political party.  The legislation that they introduced has this extremely broad definition of bullying: “Bullying” means behaviour, typically repeated, that is intended to cause or should be known to cause fear, intimidation, humiliation, distress or other harm to another person’s body, feelings, self-esteem, reputation or property, and can be direct or indirect, and includes assisting or encouraging the behaviour in any way,” 

Typically repeated but not necessarily repeated.  There is no reasonable person limitation to “distress to feelings”; some people’s feelings can be distressed by most anything.  Harm to self-esteem - repeatedly giving a pupil low grades could obviously cause harm to his or her self-esteem.  All sorts of people, especially politicians, can claim harm to their reputation - by repeated comments in newspapers.  Then consider indirectly causing loss of self-esteem or harm to feelings - let the imagination go wild.  You write a book like the God Delusion - you are harming the feelings of all sorts of religious people.  The final cooker - “assisting the behaviour” in any way - well that’s broad enough to take in virtually everyone and every act.

This was not sufficient for the Liberal and Conservative opposition political parties.  Very soon Nova Scotia’s politicians were outdoing each other proposing even more draconic legislation.  The Liberals wanted cyberbulling to become a criminal offense (imagine a criminal offence with the hugely broad definition of bullying contained in the legislation) and wanted a provision to require school boards to immediately notify Internet service and cell phone companies in instances where so-called bullying has occurred. The other opposition party, the Conservatives, proposed holding parents liable if the parent or guardian had been warned that the youth was suspected of cyberbullying OR knew or ought to have known the youth was cyberbullying.  Due diligence would be a defence to parental liability, i.e. if parents engage in 24 hour snooping on their kid they would probably be off the hook. 

The Conservative’s proposed bill also contained this weird definition: "recklessly" includes by sending electronically or posting online, including in any form of social media, any comment, picture, video or audio if there is a reasonable probability of causing harm to a person.  Is there anything that could be sent electronically or posted that “reasonably” might not cause harm to at least one very sensitive person.

Neither opposition party suggested that perhaps the original legislation was already far too broad.  No one asked whether Nova Scotia was going to end up with a society where people are investigated and locked up because they say something that might hurt someone's feelings?  No politician considered the possibility that future governments might expand the definition of "bullying" to include criticism of the state and "elected" officials?

What the Nova Scotia experience shows is that the tyranny of good intentions crosses traditional political boundaries and encompasses all mainstream political ideologies.  If there is someone saying wait a minute or hold back or take a second look, it is usually a party or person on the right or left wing fringe.  Somewhere along the way the prudent, reasonable people of the Centre have been lost.


Wednesday, 3 July 2013

CITIZEN SPIES

Citizen spies are a characteristic of totalitarian regimes, past and present.  It is estimated that one in seven of the population of the East German Communist state  was an informant for Stasi, the secret police force.  Citizen spies were also widely used in the old Soviet Union and are still an important element of state control in Cuba.  They are also favoured in fundamentalist Islamic states like Iran.

Citizen spies have now arrived in the U.K. and the U.S.  In the U.K., which once again is leading the way to the new “benign” police state, councils across the country have recruited thousands of ‘citizen snoopers’ to report so-called ‘environmental crime’.   These citizen spies are called Street Champions. The environmental crimes are not ones being committed by steel mills or chemical plants.  The target of the Street Champions are dog foulers, litter louts and neighbours who fail to sort their rubbish properly.  Other reportable matters include graffiti, litter, abandoned vehicles, fly–tipping and other anti-social behaviour that can supposedly affect the quality of life in an area.

The Street Champions are described  as the ‘eyes and ears’ of their neighbourhoods and are encouraged to take photos of ‘environmental crime’ and send them in with location details for a rapid response.  They are given hand-held GPS computers for the task or phone cards to cover the cost of using their own devices.  It is contemplated that evidence gathered this way will be used in criminal prosecutions. 

Typical of the evils which will be reported by the UK’s citizen spies is fly-posting.  This dreaded crime is defined as the display of advertising material on buildings and street furniture without the consent of the owner.  It can appear in many different forms including photocopied advertisements for local events. These may advertise garage (car-boot) sales or lost animals. They may be attached to light posts, railings and street benches or pasted on buildings. 

While the UK concentrates on evil fly-posters Homeland Security officials in the U.S.  are enlisting citizens as spies for the state by encouraging them to use a new app which allows smartphone users to attach pictures of “suspicious” vehicles or persons and send them directly to the federal government.  Its Delaware Information and Analysis Center (DIAC) now offers a mobile app to report suspicious activities in real-time by attaching a photo, sending location information, or entering details about suspicious vehicles or persons.  Users can choose to make their report anonymously or can include contact information for follow-up by law enforcement,” reports. 

In a 38 page report the American Civil Liberties Union observes that the state is recruiting individuals to serve as "eyes and ears" for the authorities while at the same time companies are being pressured to voluntarily provide consumer information to the government.  There are many ways security agencies can force companies to turn over sensitive information under federal laws such as the Patriot Act and to participate in watch list programs and in systems for the automatic scrutiny of individuals' financial transactions.  Government spy agencies are also increasingly using data mining programs like the MATRIX state information-sharing program and are purchasing information from private-sector data aggregators. Jay Stanley, Communications Director of the ACLU's Technology and Liberty Program noted "The amount of direct surveillance that government security agencies can conduct, and the number of people they can hire, will always be limited.  But leveraging the private sector vastly expands the government's capacity to invade our lives."   The American Civil Liberties Union calls this the Surveillance-Industrial Complex. 

Big city cops in the U.S. are also advocating for a new system of "citizen watch" programs - allegedly to help them spot hidden terrorists - but really to report any so-called crime including alleged acts of bullying.  New Jersey’s Anti-Bullying Bill of Rights compels the reporting of so-called acts of bullying - firstly to school authorities and secondly to the police.   In East Hanover, new Jersey schools lunch-line bullies can be reported to the police by their classmates through anonymous tips to the Crimestoppers hot line.  Crimestoppers will accept anonymous text messages, calls or tips to its Web site and then forward the information to school and local police officials. 

One so-called anti-bullying website chillingly advocates for ubiquitous surveillance: “Bullies are everywhere! Due to spy gadgets, like spy video cams and voice recorders, it has now become easier to gather hard evidence against those bullies. Children, as well as adults, can be victims of bullying, or can themselves be the bullies. Bullying can happen anywhere, at school, on the bus, at work, at the park, or even on the street. Proof, is the only way to catch them, but was previously difficult to obtain. Thanks to spy equipment, it is now possible to expose those bullies for who they really are, so they can be dealt with appropriately!”

Citizen spies in East Germany were used to keep watch on people who were non-conformist or had anti-state tendencies or were ideological dissidents.  This was done usually under the guise of looking for foreign based intrigues.  In the new police state the ostensible targets are the “terrorists” but the much more likely targets are people who might engage in disapproved social behavior. In other words the citizen spy will be used as an instrument of social policing. 

The term “social policing” describes the policing of interactions between people which do not involve violence or the threat of violence or the wrongful taking of property.  Examples of such interactions include bullying where violence or the threat of violence is absent and harassment where the character off the harassment is psychological rather than physical.  In the U.K., in particular, it extends to putting up political posters on lamp posts or making insulting comments to others or not doing recycling duties properly or to rowdiness on the streets or, for youth, just hanging out on the streets.  The citizen spies will be recording these unacceptable behaviours and will be busy taking pictures with their phones or using their state provided apps to report to the nearest police station.

The English speaking world will probably not rival Communist East Germany for the sheer number of citizen spies but with all the additional surveillance instruments available to authorities from CCTV systems to drones to big data analysis, it won’t matter.  A limited number of citizen spies will suffice for the control purposes of the new police state.